This section provides an overview of the pressures and activities affecting UK seas, and identifies which pressures have prevented, or are likely to delay the achievement of Good Environmental Status by 2020. It also summarises the measures we have taken to address the pressures. It is largely based on an analysis carried out by the UK Marine Monitoring and Assessment Strategy (UKMMAS) Productive Seas Evidence Group.

Background

Table 1 provides a summary of the main anthropogenic pressures and activities, per ecosystem component and descriptor, considered by the UK in the development of the UK Marine Strategy. In addition to these pressures, ecosystem interactions (such as competition, predation) and changes to the marine climate (such as rising sea temperatures, ocean acidification and deoxygenation) will also impact the status of marine species and habitats.

Table 1. Overview of the pressures and activities affecting UK seas

(a) Birds

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Extraction of, or mortality/injury to, wild species (by commercial and recreational fishing and other activities)

Fish and shellfish harvesting (commercial, recreational)

Renewable energy generation (wind, wave and tidal power), including infrastructure

Changes to hydrological conditions

Coastal defense and flood protection

Disturbance of species (where they breed, rest and feed) due to human presence

Tourism and leisure activities

Hunting and collecting for other purposes

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

Coastal defense and flood protection

Renewable energy generation (wind, wave and tidal power), including infrastructure

Input of other substances (synthetic substances, acute events

Transport – shipping

Extraction of oil and gas, including infrastructure

Input or spread of non-indigenous species

Transport - shipping

(b) Fish

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Extraction of, or mortality/injury to, wild species (by commercial and recreational fishing and other activities)

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

Changes to hydrological conditions (migration barriers freshwater-seawater)

Coastal defense and flood protection

Canalisation and other watercourse modifications

Input of anthropogenic sound (impulsive, continuous)

Renewable energy generation (wind, wave and tidal power), including infrastructure

Input of other forms of energy (including electromagnetic fields, light and heat)

Non-renewable energy generation

(c) Cetaceans and seals

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Extraction of, or mortality/injury to, wild species (by commercial and recreational fishing and other activities)

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

Input of anthropogenic sound (impulsive, continuous)

Renewable energy generation (wind, wave and tidal power), including infrastructure

Extraction of oil and gas including infrastructure

Military operations

Transport — shipping

Input of other substances (such as synthetic substances, non-synthetic substances, radionuclides)

Agriculture

Urban uses

 

Industrial uses

Waste treatment and disposal

Transport

(d) Pelagic Habitats

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Extraction of, or mortality/injury to, wild species (by commercial and recreational fishing and other activities)

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

Input or spread of non-indigenous species

Transport — shipping

Input of nutrients – diffuse sources, point sources, atmospheric deposition

Agriculture

Forestry

Urban uses

Industrial uses

Waste treatment and disposal

Transport — shipping

Input of other forms of energy (including electromagnetic fields, light and heat)

Non-renewable energy generation

(e) Benthic Habitats

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Physical loss (due to permanent change of seabed substrate or morphology and to extraction of seabed substrate)

Land claim

Extraction of minerals

Renewable energy generation (wind, wave and tidal power), including infrastructure

Extraction of oil and gas, including infrastructure

Extraction of, or mortality/injury to, wild species (by commercial and recreational fishing and other activities

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

Physical disturbance to seabed

Coastal defense and flood protection

Extraction of minerals

Restructuring of seabed morphology, including dredging and depositing of materials

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

 

Changes to hydrological conditions

Restructuring of seabed morphology, including dredging and depositing of materials

Coastal defenses and flood protection

Land claim

Input or spread of non-indigenous species

Transport — shipping

Aquaculture — marine, including infrastructure

Input of nutrients and input of organic matter

Agriculture

Urban uses

Industrial uses

Transport — shipping

Input of other forms of energy (including electromagnetic fields, light and heat)

Non-renewable energy generation

(f) Non-indigenous species

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Input or spread of non-indigenous species

Transport — shipping

Aquaculture — marine, including infrastructure

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Extraction of, or mortality/injury to, wild species (by commercial and recreational fishing and other activities

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

(g) Commercial fish

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Extraction of, or mortality/injury to, wild species (by commercial and recreational fishing and other activities

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

(h) Eutrophication

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Input of nutrients and input of organic material

Agriculture

Urban uses

Industrial uses

Waste water treatment and disposal

Transport — shipping

Aquaculture

(h) Changes to hydrographical features

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Changes to hydrological conditions

 

Offshore structures

Coastal defenses and flood protection

Restructuring of seabed morphology, including dredging and depositing of materials

Transport infrastructure

Input of other forms of energy (including electromagnetic fields, light and heat

 

 

electromagnetic fields, light and heat)

Renewable energy generation (wind, wave and tidal power), including infrastructure

(i) Contaminants

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Input of other substances (such as synthetic substances, non-synthetic substances, radionuclides) – diffuse sources, point sources, atmospheric deposition, acute events.

Agriculture

Urban uses

Industrial uses

Waste water treatment and disposal

Restructuring of seabed morphology, including dredging and depositing of materials

Transport — shipping

Extraction of oil and gas, including infrastructure

(j) Contaminants in fish and shellfish

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Input of other substances

Agriculture

Urban uses

Industrial uses

Waste water treatment and disposal

Restructuring of seabed morphology, including dredging and depositing of materials

Transport — shipping

Extraction of oil and gas, including infrastructure

(k) Litter

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Input of litter (solid waste matter, including micro-sized litter)

Land claim

Urban uses

Industrial uses

Tourism and leisure activities

Transport – land

Aquaculture – marine

Fish and shellfish harvesting (professional, recreational)

Transport –shipping

(l) Input of anthropogenic sound

Relevant pressures

Associated activities

Input of anthropogenic sound (impulsive, continuous)

Renewable energy generation (wind, wave and tidal power) including infrastructure

Extraction of oil and gas, including infrastructure

Military operations

Transport — shipping

To provide more detailed information on the framework mentioned above the UK Marine Monitoring and Assessment Strategy (UKMMAS) Productive Seas Evidence Group has prepared an analysis of the 20 main activities affecting UK seas, their spatial extent and intensity, and some of the associated generic measures to control them. The Marine Strategy Part Three (HM Government, 2015): UK programme of measures describes these generic measures, and more specific measures, in detail.

Further information

Table 2. Analysis of human activities, priority pressures, spatial extent, measures and temporal outlook for different activities.

(a) Fisheries

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical damage (abrasion and penetration)
Changes in suspended solids (water clarity)
Litter
Removal of target species
Removal of non-target species

Activity widespread in the shelf seas of Greater North Sea and Celtic Seas subregions.

When measured in volume of landings, activity is most intense in the northern North Sea, the west of Scotland, the English Channel and the central North Sea. In terms of trends in spatial distribution of effort (as in where fishermen fish), there has been no change since 2012. There has been a small decrease in fishing effort (measured in kW days at sea) since 2012, although there are more significant decreases when examined at the level of the stock targeted (HM Government, 2014)

Fishing vessel licencing

 

Common Fisheries Policy

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (b) Oil and gas

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical loss (change to another seabed type)
Noise
Contamination by hazardous substances
Physical damage (abrasion)

Infrastructure operational in 2015 includes around 475 installations (many of which are subsea), around 10,000 km of pipelines, 15 onshore terminals, and over 5,000 wells (some of which are suspended) (data provided by Oil and Gas UK on 19 May 2016)

Marine planning and marine licencing

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (c) Renewable energy: wind

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical loss (change to another seabed type)
Death or injury by collision
Barrier to species movement
Noise

Existing installations are in specific leased blocks off the coasts of the Southern North Sea, the Firth of Forth, Moray Firth and the Irish Sea.

As of 2016, there were 30 offshore wind farms in UK waters, comprising a total of 1,569 offshore wind turbines (Renewable UK, 2017).

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (d) Maritime Transport

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Litter
Noise
Non-indigenous species
Contamination by hazardous substances
Physical damage (abrasion)

Activity is widespread. The major shipping lanes are in the Southern North Sea, Northern North Sea, Eastern Channel and the Irish Sea. The primary port facilities are on the coasts of these areas.

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Water Framework Directive

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (e) Defence Military

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Litter
Noise
Physical loss
Introduction of synthetic (PAH) and non-synthetic (Hydrocarbons) compounds and radio-nuclides
Non-indigenous species
Visual disturbance

Large areas of UK seas are designated for exercises particularly in the Western Channel, Eastern Channel, Northern North Sea and Southern North Sea, but the actual spatial extent of activity is confidential. Intensity and frequency of activities is confidential.
There have been no military (naval base) closures since 2009.

 

 (f) Leisure & recreation (including sea angling)

Activity

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Leisure &
recreation
(including sea
angling)

Litter
Physical damage (abrasion)
Non-indigenous species
Removal of target species
Visual disturbance

Activity occurs in coastal waters throughout the Greater North Sea and Celtic Seas subregions.

Water Framework Directive

 

Marine Protected Areas

 

Habitats and Birds directive

 (g) Coastal defence

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Interference with hydrological processes
Physical loss (change to another seabed type)
Barrier to species movement

The proportion of coastline protected with coast protection structures or artificial beaches varies regionally, ranging from 50% in north west England, 28% in Wales, 22% in south west England, 20% in Northern Ireland and 7% in Scotland (EUROSION, 2004 cited in Celtic Seas Partnership (2016).

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Water Framework Directive

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (h) Aquaculture

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical damage (siltation)
Changes in suspended solids (water clarity)
Introduction or spread of non-indigenous species
Contamination by hazardous substances
(Pollution and other chemical changes)
Nutrient and organic matter enrichment
Underwater noise changes
Removal of target species
Removal of non-target species

Finfish aquaculture installations are primarily based in Scotland (west coast of the mainland, Western Isles, Orkney and Shetland), with some production also off Northern Ireland. Shellfish installations are located throughout the UK, including in the same areas of Scotland as noted for finfish production, north and south Wales, Northern Irish sea lochs and the south and east coasts of England.

In 2012, there were 247 authorised finfish businesses in England and 31 in Wales. The vast majority were small, employing less than 5 staff (Cefas, 2012). In 2010 there were 763 aquaculture sites across the (UK Marine Socio Economics Project, 2014)

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Common Fisheries Policy

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (i) Navigational dredging

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical damage (extraction, siltation)
Changes in suspended solids (water clarity)
Emergence regime changes

Approaches to ports and harbours in all regions. Maintenance dredging at least once every ten years.

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Water Framework Directive

 

(j) Sea disposal operation

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical damage (siltation)
Physical loss (change to another seabed type)
Pollution and other chemical changes

In the UK there is 677km2 of open dredge material disposal sites (excluding some temporary disposal sites for offshore wind farm sandwave clearance activities). The amount of material disposed of at these sites will vary from year to year and disposal will not occur over the entirety of this area in any given year (Cefas UK Disposal Site Layer).

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (k) Waste disposal

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical damage (siltation)
Changes in suspended solids (water clarity)
Nutrient and organic enrichment
Deoxygenation
Contamination by hazardous substances
Salinity changes
Temperature changes

Liquid discharges (including wastewater) occur at coastal locations. There are also specific areas licensed for dredge spoil disposal at sea.

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Water Framework Directive

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (l) Mineral extraction

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical damage (extraction, abrasion, siltation)
Changes in suspended solids (water clarity)

Main activity is marine aggregate extraction which takes place in licensed areas in the Southern North Sea, Eastern English Channel and South Coast. Smaller amounts of activity occur in the Bristol Channel and Irish Sea. The overall extent of dredging is small - 83 km2 in 2015 (BMAPA, 2018)

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 (m) Renewable energy: wave and tidal stream and lagoon

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical loss (change to another seabed type)
Noise
Death or injury by collision
Barrier to species movement
Interference with hydrological processes

There has been significant interest in the development of wave and tidal stream energy devices in recent times with a number of prototype devices being deployed at test sites.

The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), based in Orkney, has been in operation since 2003. The SeaGen 1.2MW tidal energy convertor was installed in Strangford Lough in Northern Ireland in 2008 and is currently being decommissioned, due to be complete by end of April 2019. The Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters were the site of the world’s first commercial scale wave and tidal leasing round in 2010.

To date, one commercial scale tidal stream development is operational in the inner sound of Pentland Firth. Commercial scale tidal stream developments are also being planned around Anglesey and off Fair Head in Northern Ireland. Tidal lease areas are also located in the Bristol Channel, Portland and the Isle of Wight in England.

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Water Framework Directive

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (n) Pipelines

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical loss (change to another seabed type)

The most intense pipeline networks are in the Northern North Sea, Southern North Sea and Irish Sea, although the actual special extent of pipelines is small.

 

Pipelines across the UKCS (including umbilicals, mooring lines and anchor chains) are approximately 27,000 km in length. Taking into consideration the diameter of the pipelines gives a footprint of approximately 11 km2. This would be further reduced if the method of pipeline installation was known.

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Marine Protected Areas

 (o) Telecommunications

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Physical loss (change to another seabed type)

Cables are widespread but spatial extent is negligible. Since UKMMAS (2010)

was published, domestic cables have been installed to link Scottish islands and enable fast broadband access, however no new international cables have been installed.

Marine planning and marine licencing

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

Marine Protected Areas

 (p) Cultivation for Biofuels in the Marine Environment

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Nutrient enrichment
Introduction or spread of non-indigenous species

Small-scale at present in coastal waters of Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Marine Protected Areas

(q) Storage of gases (such as natural gas and carbon capture and storage (CCS))

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Noise

There is one natural gas storage site in Southern North Sea (Rough), at which gas storage was reduced in 2015 as a safety precaution whilst well tests were conducted. Three others (Deborah, Gateway and Larne Lough Storage Sites) have an agreement for lease. There are currently no CCS sites in UK waters.

Marine planning and marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 (r) Power transmission

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Electromagnetic charges

Several subsea power cables connect the island communities of Scotland to the mainland national grid infrastructure. The spatial extent of the pressure is very localised - (Andrulewicz and others, 2003) found significant changes in the magnetic field within a few metres of a subsea power cable, but this disappeared within 20 meters.

Subsea interconnectors within UK waters link the following countries:
Moyle Interconnector - Scotland and Northern Ireland
East-West Interconnector - Ireland and North Wales
Isle of Man to England Interconnector
BritNed Interconnector - England and the Netherlands, IFA England to France
Western HVDC Link - England and Scotland (expected completion 2018)

Marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 (s) Water Abstraction

Priority pressures (Marine Strategy Framework Directive pressure categories)

Spatial extent and intensity of activity

Examples of relevant generic measures from the UK Marine Strategy Part Three

Input of other substances (such as synthetic substances, non-synthetic substances, radionuclides) — diffuse sources, point sources, atmospheric deposition, acute events

Activity occurs at specific coastal locations, mainly in the Southern North Sea, Eastern Channel and the Western Channel and Irish Sea.

Marine licencing

 

Environmental Impact Assessment/ Strategic Environmental Assessment/ Habitats Regulations Assessment

 

Water Framework Directive

 

The significant pressures identified from Table 1 are managed through the programme of measures in the Marine Strategy Part 3 (HM Government, 2015) to reduce their impact on the marine environment, and thus enable Good Environmental Status to be achieved. Table 3 highlights the predominant pressures identified in the updated Marine Strategy part 1 (HM Government, 2012, which are preventing or likely to delay the achievement of Good Environmental Status by 2020. There are also some pressures where the impacts are uncertain, so it is not clear whether Good Environmental Status will be compromised or not. For example, it is not yet clear whether continuous noise from shipping affects various marine species and habitats at the population level.

Table 3. The predominant pressures identified in the updated Marine Strategy part 1 which are preventing or likely to delay the achievement of Good Environmental Status by 2020.

Pressure preventing or delaying the achievement of Good Environmental Status

Main associated activities or implications

Context

Input or spread of non-indigenous species

Transport — shipping (ballast water, hull fouling).

 

Natural or climate-related spread of non-indigenous species to warming UK seas following their introduction to the wider region

Ballast water Convention is now in force but needs ratification by more significant flag states, and climate related spread of species is very difficult to control.

 

Commercial and recreational fishing

Fish and shellfish harvesting. Use of bottom-towed fishing gear

Fish Stocks and use of gear are controlled by the EU Common Fisheries policy. For Marine Strategy Framework Directive Descriptors 1 and 2, UK has an Article 14 exception from achieving Good Environmental Status by 2020 because it will take time for the measures to actually reduce exploitation rates and allow for fish and shellfish to achieve the desired length and biomass.

Introduction of litter

 

Transport: shipping

Land activities in the framework of tourism and recreation

Fishing and harvesting of shellfish

Aquaculture – marine

Activities on land: urban use, industrial use

Litter remains widespread on UK beaches, on the seafloor and in the water column and is not decreasing in spite of measures taken under UK Marine Strategy Part 3 (HM Government, 2015). Not possible for UK to control all sources impacting UK seas which need international action and measures

Ecosystem interactions (for example competition, predation) and changes to the marine climate probable for birds, seals, pelagic, benthic habitats and non-indigenous species

Changing temperatures are affecting pelagic and benthic habitats and are leading to changes in the distribution, growth and reproduction of some populations of fish, marine mammals, birds and other species.

More monitoring and research needed to quantify the extent of these effects compared to anthropogenic pressures, but they are essentially outside of the UK control.

 

Assessment method

Results

Conclusions

Knowledge gaps

References

Andrulewicz E, Napierska D, Otremba Z (2003) ‘The environmental effects of the installation and functioning of the submarine SwePol Link HVDC transmission line: a case study of the Polish Marine Area of the Baltic Sea’ Journal of Sea Research 49(4): 337-345

British Marine Aggregate Producers Association (BMAPA) and the Crown Estate (2018) ‘Marine aggregate dredging 199802917 a twenty-year review’ (viewed on 1 April 2019)

Cefas (2012) ‘Aquaculture statistics for the UK with a focus on England and Wales 2012’ Published by Cefas, January 2015 (viewed on 25 March 2019)

Celtic Seas Partnership (2016) Future Trends in Celtic Seas – Baseline report’ A report produced by ABPmer and ICF for WWF-UK (viewed on 14 January 2019)

HM Government (2012) ‘Marine Strategy Part One: UK Initial Assessment and Good Environmental Status’ (viewed on 5 July 2018)

HM Government (2014) ‘UK sea fisheries statistics: 2014’ Marine Management Organisation, National Statistics, September 2015National Statistics (Viewed on 25 March 2019)

HM Government (2015) ‘Marine Strategy Part Three: UK Programme of Measures’ December 2015 (viewed on 16 November 2018)

Marine Socio-Economics Project (MSEP) (2014) ‘Aquaculture in Europe and the UK’ MSEP Facts & Figures Series 5 (viewed on 1 April 2019)

Renewable UK (2017) ‘Wind Energy Statistics’ (viewed on 1 April 2019)

UKMMAS (2010) 'Charting Progress 2: An assessment of the state of the UK seas' Published by Defra on behalf of the UK Marine Monitoring and Assessment Strategy community (Viewed on 25 March 2018)

Acknowledgements

Assessment Metadata

Please contact marinestrategy@defra.gov.uk for metadata information